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For my part, I know nothing with any certainty, but the sight of the stars makes me want to dream. – Vincent Van Gogh

June 27 – July 2, 2022


■ Today’s sunset is the latest of the year (if you live near latitude 40° north), even though the solstice was on the 21st. This slight discrepancy, amounting to only a minute or so, arises from the tilt of Earth’s axis and the ellipticity of Earth’s orbit — like the somewhat larger winter equivalent in December, which moves the earliest sunset from the solstice to about December 7th.


■ Look for the Big Dipper hanging straight down in the northwest as soon as darkness is complete. Its bottom two stars, the Pointers, point toward modest Polaris to their lower right, by about three fists at arm’s length.

Polaris is the end of the Little Dipper’s handle. From there the rest of the Little Dipper floats upward. Perhaps it’s a helium balloon escaped from some June evening party, trailing its string. Through light pollution, however, all you may see of the Little Dipper are Polaris at its bottom and Kochab, the lip of the Little Dipper’s bowl, at the top. The rest of its stars are pretty dim at 3rd to 5th magnitude.

■ New Moon (exact at 10:52 p.m. EDT).


■ Arcturus and Vega are about equally far from straight overhead shortly after dark: Arcturus toward the southwest, Vega toward the east.

Arcturus is pale yellow-orange; Vega is icy bluish white. Star colors are mostly subtle, and different people have an easier or harder time seeing them. To me, the tints of bright stars show a little better in the dark blue of a late-twilight sky than in a fully dark sky.

For instance, compare Vega and Arcturus in twilight and after dark. Do their colors stand out a little better or worse for you one way or the other?

Binoculars, of course, always make star colors much more obvious.


■ Leo the Lion is mostly a constellation of late winter and spring evenings. But he’s not gone yet. As twilight ends look due west, somewhat low, for Regulus, his brightest and now lowest star: the forefoot of the Lion stick figure.

The Sickle of Leo extends upper right from Regulus. The rest of the Lion’s constellation figure runs for two or three fist-widths to the upper left from there, to his tail star Denebola, the highest. He’ll soon be treading offstage into the sunset.


■ On the eastern side of the sky, the Summer Triangle holds sway after dark. Its top star is Vega, the brightest on that entire half of the sky. The brightest star to Vega’s lower left is Deneb. Farther to Vega’s lower right is Altair, with fainter Tarazed just above it. The Milky Way (if you have deep darkness) runs across the Triangle just inside its bottom edge.

As evening grows late and even Altair rises high, look left or lower left of it, by hardly more than a fist, for the compact little constellation Delphinus, the Dolphin.

Did you get it? Then try for even fainter, smaller Sagitta, the Arrow. It’s to Altair’s upper left, just a little closer. The Arrow points lower left, past the head of Delphinus.


■ In twilight this evening, look west for the waxing crescent Moon. Look left of the Moon for Regulus and above the Moon for slightly fainter Algieba, Gamma Leonis, as shown below. Binoculars help reveal the color difference between the two stars. Algieba is a wide optical double for binoculars and a much closer true binary (5 arcseconds) for telescopes.


Seven dawn planets! All five naked-eye planets remain lined up in the dawn, in good view for most of this week. From Mercury through Saturn, they run from low in the east-northeast to high in the south as dawn brightens.

By coincidence, they happen to be arranged in order of their distance from the Sun, counting from lower left to upper right. Dim, sub-naked-eye Uranus and Neptune also lurk among them.

Mercury, in Gemini is low in the glow of sunrise, glimmering 10° to 13° lower left of bright Venus this week. See the scene at the top of this page. Mercury sinks a little lower into the sunrise day by day, even as it brightens from magnitude –0.2 to –0.8. Binoculars help.

Fainter Aldebaran, magnitude +0.8, sparkles weakly in Mercury’s vicinity.

Venus (magnitude –3.9) rises just as dawn begins in Gemini. Look for it above the east-northeast horizon. It’s very far lower left of bright Jupiter, by roughly six fists at arm’s length.

Mars and Jupiter, very different at magnitudes +0.5 and –2.4 respectively, shine in the east-southeast before and during early dawn, near the Pisces-Cetus border. Mars glows to Jupiter’s lower left. They continue to move apart, separating from 16° to 20° this week.

Saturn, magnitude +0.7, rises around 11 p.m. in eastern Aquarius. By the beginning of dawn, you’ll find it in the south. It’s some 40° (about four fists) to the right of Jupiter.

The little star less than 2° to Saturn’s lower right is Delta Capricorni, magnitude 2.8. Saturn has stayed near Delta Cap for weeks, because the planet is near its stationary point: the eastern end of the retrograde loop on the sky that it performs every 12½ months. Delta Cap will keep fairly close company with Saturn all the way through August.

Uranus, magnitude 5.8 in Taurus, is low in the east before the first light of dawn, between Venus and Mars.

Neptune, magnitude 7.9 in Pisces, is high in the southeast before the first light of dawn, between Jupiter and Saturn.

Pluto, is retrograde in Capricorn.

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